As a cultural phenomenon, Christianity reflects the various fields of the western society, and nature also plays a certain role in the development of European and American literature, which affects the creative career of many writers in the history of European and American literature. When Christianity came into being, it was inspired and edifying by Judaism "prophet literature", "Wisdom Literature" and "apocalyptic literature". It accepted the Jewish nation's historical accidents, religious events, folk customs, oath chant, love poetry and so on, together with his own Gospel stories and Jesus disciples. During the Empire period, "Bible literature" and "church literature" were acquired.
In the later period of Rome's Latin literary creation, Christian Jesus stories, apostolic biographies, hymns and prayer words account for a large proportion. In particular, the Christian theologian Augustin, as his "confession of faith", wrote the autobiographical "confession", which became the representative work of Late Latin literature in Rome. In the middle ages, European literature is mainly about Christian literature, and its "implied meaning" is also derived from metaphors and metaphors in the biblical expressions. The 7 story of the English poet sidemont's creation, the "Juliana", "Elin" and "Christ" by Sin Neue Wulf, the 8 poet, and the French in 9 and tenth Century are "the song of Saint Olali", "the story of Saint erieri" and "the crucifixion", all of which belong to the "Biblical Literature" and "the saint literature". Circumference. The heroic epics of all the European nations are also influenced by Christianity, such as the British epic Baio Wulf, the French epic "the song of Roland" in Eleventh Century, the Finland epic "clewar" in twelfth Century and the Spanish epic "Xi De", all of which have infiltrated the story of Jesus's extreme or saints' saints. These works also promote the concept of Christianity and praise the hero of Christianity in eulogising their national history.
The Crusade began to rise in chivalry literature to form "the first form of sexual love in history" in medieval Europe. Although chivalry's literature reflected the Christian asceticism and the thought of birth, singing the beauty of the present life and love, it still advocated the Christian belief in adventure, holy war and devotion. The saints' wandering and wandering around the world maintain close ties with Christian tradition. Renaissance Literature in Europe is the mainstream of urban literature. They reflect the aspirations and aspirations of the new citizens. For example, Bio's "ten talk", Chaucer's "Canterbury story", Lai Xilin's "the ignorant book", eulasmo's "eulogy of fools", and maro's "the tragedy of the Faust" are not only widely, fresh, but also rich in language and refined in writing. These works emphasize the wisdom, great and natural beauty and tranquility of human beings, and advocate the supreme authority to oppose religious belief with reason, and take the place of "theology" by "human learning". However, its "Renaissance" or "innovation" did not break away from the soil of Christian culture in medieval Europe. Many literary works of humanists still borrow metaphors, fables or dreams in church literature. In the ideological system, it is also more or less directly or interactively accepted by Christian theology. For example, the Divine Comedy of "the first poet of the new age" and "the father of the Renaissance" was built according to the orthodox theological system of Guiana, so it was said that the ethics of the Divine Comedy came from Aristotle, astronomy came from Ptolemy, and theology came from the Guiana and regarded Dante as "A Gui in the literary world at that time." That "." In addition, the poet of the late Renaissance of Italy, in his narrative poem "Jerusalem of liberation", also expressed its admiration and attachment to Christian culture through the conflict and contest of two kinds of Christian and Islamic ideology and culture.
Martin in sixteenth Century. Luther's religious reform not only transformed Christianity, but also transformed German literature. His translation of the Bible, his prose, fables, and hymns "not only cleared the ox circle of the Church (the Catholic Church of Rome), but also cleared the German language, the ox circle, created modern German prose, and wrote the triumph of the sixteenth Century Marseilles. The word and the song of the hymn of confidence. The "religious reform" under the banner of Christianity not only created a new era of modern capitalism in Europe, but also began a new era of European and American literature development.
In seventeenth Century, the British bourgeois revolution was carried out under the banner of the Christian "Puritan Revolution". This "Puritan Revolution" produced famous writers, Milton and Bunyan. Their works are subject to Christian culture. The masterpieces, such as paradise lost, paradise lost, Samson, and the journey of the kingdom of heaven, are popular and popular, and have become the treasures of the European and American literary gardens. In addition, in order to find the paradise of freedom of faith. The Pilgrims who crossed the sea to emigrate to North America to avoid religious persecution in Europe also laid a permanent foundation for North American literature.
In 1640, the first book in North America, "the whole book of English translation of the holy poem" (usually the Bay holy poem), was the hand of the Puritan, and the Christian poet Wigglesworth's long poem, "the day of the last trial", was republished more than 10 times in 1662 and became the first best seller in England. These Puritan writings became a rare flower in the early spring of March in the North American literary world.
The fifteenth Century European Enlightenment Literature reflected the subtle changes of Christian thought in the new era. Lessing, a German writer, advocated religious tolerance with the allusions of three rings in his "the wise man's new year", and believed that all religions had their value, and they could not hold a "narrow view". Voltaire, the French writer, also narrated the story of the Sultan O Rothman and the female Christian Zaire in his "Zaire", and pointed out that the extreme religious restrictions would lead to the tragic end of human life. In his epistolary novel the nun, Diderot criticized the Catholic monastic life and accused her of the negative consequences of asceticism. During this period, people from all walks of life in western countries had diverse understanding of Christianity, so their attitudes towards Christianity in European and American literature were also different.
In nineteenth Century, the trend of romantic literature influenced the European and American trends further. Both positive romanticism and negative romanticism discussed Christianity as a Western cultural tradition from its own point of view, and Christian thought also influenced the emergence of mysticism, intuitionism and transcendentalism. In the works of German writers Schlegel, Nuo Faris and Hoffman, British poet Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey, and the works of Natsu do Brion, Lamartine and Vigny, the French literati, we can see the various kinds of Christian trends of thought at that time. They drink away the themes that describe nature and super ideas with mysterious dreams. Although they make the inner experiences and fantasies of human beings mysterious and mysterious because of their extremes, they also have the mysterious beauty of "the unity of things and me" and "return to the world" and the "lake light mountain" and "the deep valley". But sweet smell. In the United States, Hawthorne, a romantic writer, used his realistic arm to analyze the true and false of the early North American Puritan life in his "red letter" and explore the crime and punishment of the fate of human nature. Emerson, alcot, riplie and others are intuition. The transcendental creation is leisurely and unforgettable.
The second half of the nineteenth Century and the early twentieth Century were the turbulent times of the European and American society, and the romantic literary literary leaves of the first time had to give way to the realism of the western social crisis. Ibsen's plays and Dostoevsky's novels have searched the way of the crisis in Christianity, so they were honored by the Christian thinkers of the twentieth Century as "the author of the prophet". Tolstoy turned the tide of Christian humanitarianism and left many amazing works. Poland writer Xiao Ke, who uses the theme of Christianity, arouses the soul of the nation, making his novels meaningful and passionate, showing a long charm. In recent European and American literature, the guidance of Christian thought and the use of Christian themes have become grandson, and no longer constitute the mainstream.
However, there are still many excellent works that embody the relationship between the two parties in the contemporary literary world, so that they can continue to maintain their momentum of existence and development.
Christianity is a religion that believes in God and the Heavenly Kingdom. It originated in the Middle East. Christianity is very important in the history of human development. Christians believe in Jesus's monotheism religion, the son of God (God or God) and the Savior of mankind (Messiah, Christ). Christianity and Islam and Buddhism are listed as the three major world religions.