The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church in the world with more than 1.29 billion members. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilization. Under the leadership of the Roman bishop known as Pope, the doctrine of the church was summed up in the Nicene Creed. Its central government, the Holy See, the enclave in Vatican City, Rome, Italy.
Catholicism teaches that it is a Church of Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic origin established by Jesus Christ, whose bishop is the successor to the apostles of Christ, and that the Pope is the successor of the saint Peter, whom Jesus Christ conferred on him. It maintains that it practices the original Christian faith, retains it without error, and is inherited by sacred traditions. The Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Church, and other institutions such as the Beggar Order and the Closed Order of the Order reflect the various theological and spiritual priorities of the Church.
In the Eucharist, the Eucharist is the main Eucharist and is called ceremonial in Mass. The church teaches that priests become breadth and bread of Christ through the sacrifices of priests. Blessed Virgin Mary and Queen Mother of God in the Catholic Church, the Virgin Mary is respected with dogma and dedication. Its teaching includes teaching the sick, the poor and the suffering through corporal punishment and spiritual compassion through the sanctification of the religion and evangelism and the Catholic social teaching. The Catholic Church is the largest non-governmental provider of education and health care in the world.
The Catholic Church influenced Western philosophy, culture, science and art. The Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church shared their exchanges until the East-West splittism of 1054, especially the Pope's authority, and the controversy over differences in Christian teaching before the Orthodox Church was divided in Chalcedonian in 451. Catholics live around the world through missions, diasporas and conversions. Since the twentieth century, due to the secularization of Europe, most people live in the southern hemisphere, exacerbating the persecution in the Middle East. Since the end of the 20th century, Catholics have been criticized as having sex education, refusing to receive female education and handling sexual abuse cases.